Symposium: BRAIN Initiative

13:30-13:40: Session Introduction-  Bin He, University of Minnesota

13:40-14:05: Walter Korshetz, M.D. Director National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Dr. Koroshetz unexpectedly cannot attend the meeting. Instead Dr. Sarah H. Lisanby will give the talk.
Sarah H. Lisanby, M.D., Director of Translational Research, NIMH, and Lead NIH BRAIN Initiative team on Large Scale Recording and Modulation of the Central Nervous System
Presentation title: The State of BRAIN Initiatives

14:05-14:30: Karl Deisseroth, M.D., Ph.D. DH Chen Professor of Bioengineering and Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and Howard Hughes Investigator, Stanford University
Presentation title: Optogenetics and CLARITY

14:30-14:55: Bin He, Ph.D. Distinguished McKnight University Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Medtronic-Bakken Chair, Director of the Institute for Engineering in Medicine and of the Center for Neuroengineering, University of Minnesota
Presentation title: Electrophysiological Neuroimaging and Brain-Computer Interfaces

14:55-15:00: Q&A

The State of BRAIN Initiative

Walter J. Koroshetz, M.D.
Dr. Koroshetz unexpectedly cannot attend the meeting. Instead Dr. Sarah H. Lisanby will give the talk.

The human brain is an amazingly complex computational organ with information flowing on electrochemical gradients and processed by chemical neurotransmission at trillions of synapses.  The investigators participating in the National Institute of Health’s (NIH) BRAIN Initiative are opening technological doors to enhance our understanding of how information is encoded and processed in brain circuits.  Ongoing projects include developing an in-depth classification of brain cells and inventing new means of invasively and non-invasively interrogating and modulating brain circuit activity.  Great challenges lie ahead as the complexity of brain circuitry extends across multiple spatial scales, beginning with the information processing that goes on in a single neuron, to the interactions with its diverse neighbors, to the network activity that involves near and far nuclei.  In addition, the dynamic brain circuit activity occurs at multiple time scales that can stretch from milliseconds to days and even years.  This circuit activity is integrated into a constantly changing sensory environment for the purpose of enabling the organism’s universe of behaviors.  The NIH BRAIN Initiative projects are positioned to provide tools for studies at various points along these spatial, temporal, and behavioral scales. The first set of three-year projects spurred the formation of interdisciplinary research teams to attack major technological challenges.  BRAIN reached a budget milestone of $150 million/year for NIH in FY 2016, signaling that the excitement of the BRAIN Initiative will be sustainable through 2025.  NIH welcomes input on our plans for BRAIN’s next phases as well as how we might best attract innovative engineers to help develop neurotechnologies that will enable precise monitoring and modulation of brain circuit activity.

Electrophysiological Neuroimaging and Brain-Computer Interfaces

Bin He, Ph.D.

Information is encoded and processed across dynamic and highly interconnected neural networks throughout the three-dimensional volume of the brain. Electromagnetic signals originating from underlying neural activity contain rich information about the temporal activity of the brain. Over the past three decades, noninvasive electrophysiological neuroimaging has been developed to map and image the dynamic neural activity and functional connectivity of the underlying brain networks. Engineering innovations have greatly enhanced the spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuroimaging techniques for mapping brain function and dysfunction. In addition to the high temporal resolution inherent to electrophysiological neuroimaging, this technology has become a dynamic functional brain imaging modality with good spatial resolution as well. We will discuss electrophysiological neuroimaging in localizing and imaging human brain activity and functional connectivity associated with sensory and motor tasks, perception, and epileptic seizures. We will also discuss the merits and challenges of multimodal functional neuroimaging, especially integration of electrophysiological and hemodynamic measurements, and integration of noninvasive neuromodulation such as focused ultrasound with electromagnetic imaging to develop high spatio-temporal resolution dynamic brain imaging. We will discuss co-localization of hemodynamic and electrophysiological signals associated with motor imagery tasks, and will present our recent progress in decoding human intent using a brain-computer interface, demonstrating that humans can control a quadcopter or a robotic arm by “thoughts” decoded from non-invasively recorded EEG signals.